In addition to acting on the brain, CBD influences many body processes. That’s due to the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which was discovered in the 1990s, after scientists started investigating why pot produces a high. Although much less well-known than the cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the ECS is critical. “The ECS helps us eat, sleep, relax, forget what we don’t need to remember, and protect our bodies from harm,” Marcu says. There are more ECS receptors in the brain than there are for opioids or serotonin, plus others in the intestines, liver, pancreas, ovaries, bone cells, and elsewhere.
Dispensaries: In states where marijuana is legal for recreational use, dispensaries are a common sight. They are much rarer in states with more restrictions. In states that permit the use of medical marijuana, hemp-based CBD oils do not normally require a prescription but marijuana-based oils do. Like brick-and-mortar locations, dispensaries offer more customer service. However, as noted, this may not be an option depending on the buyer’s state of residence. Also, CBD oil prices tend to be significantly higher at dispensaries.
^ Nadulski T, Pragst F, Weinberg G, Roser P, Schnelle M, Fronk EM, Stadelmann AM (December 2005). "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract". Ther Drug Monit. 27 (6): 799–810. doi:10.1097/01.ftd.0000177223.19294.5c. PMID 16306858.
Side effects of CBD include nausea, fatigue and irritability. CBD can increase the level in your blood of the blood thinner coumadin, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in your blood by the exact same mechanism that grapefruit juice does. A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication. Currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So you cannot know for sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other (unknown) elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.
Once you’ve applied the oil, massage it gently but firmly into your skin. The body won’t absorb much of the cannabinoid in small doses, so make sure you apply it liberally. Once you’re done, make sure to wash your hands. Some oils contain substances that may cause discomfort or irritation if they come into contact with sensitive areas, such as the eyes.
A newcomer to our CBD oils ranking, RE: Botanicals is no stranger to hemp. Founded by John Roulac, a long-time hemp advocate and founder of the organic superfoods brand Nutiva, RE: Botanicals is one of the only CBD brands to earn the USDA organic seal. They deserve a shout-out for prioritizing regenerative agriculture, while keeping prices reasonable.   
Although I’m no physician, and am not qualified to recommend any drugs for any specific medical purposes, and you should consult your doctor when considering the consumption of anything that may be medicinal: If you’re looking to experiment with CBD products, you might consider looking for CBD products that are “whole plant” extract based from very high CBD cultivars. If you’re in a State that has a legal Cannabis system, you may also find more therapeutic benefits from non-hemp derived CBD products.
Customer Service: There are multiple ways to get in touch with customer service, and Pure Hemp Botanicals’ customer service representatives are both quick to respond and forthcoming with information. On the down side, free shipping kicks in at $100 — otherwise it’s a pricey $9.99 flat rate. And you can return products, but only if they’re unopened.

Selective breeding of cannabis plants has expanded and diversified as commercial and therapeutic markets develop.[13] Some growers in the US succeeded in lowering the proportion of CBD-to-THC to accommodate customers who preferred varietals that were more mind-altering due to the higher THC and lower CBD content.[52] In the US, hemp is classified by the federal government as cannabis containing no more than 0.3% THC by dry weight. This classification was established in the 2018 Farm Bill and was refined to include hemp-sourced extracts, cannabinoids, and derivatives in the definition of hemp.[53]
^ Jump up to: a b c Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS (December 2012). "Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences (Review). 367 (1607): 3364–78. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0389. PMC 3481531. PMID 23108553.

I had brain surgery 7 yrs ago, ever since I have had horrible pain on that side of my face/head. I am on, and have been on heavy duty pain killers that don’t work most of the time. (As I’m typing this I am almost in tears in Pain an hr after taking meds.) what would be the best for me? I’ve heard tinctures for the localized pain I’m in. But I also suffer from chronic migraines, is there a CBD oil that will cover both issues?

In nature, Cannabis ruderalis typically has the lowest levels of THC, Cannabis sativa has a higher level of THC than it has CBD, and Cannabis indica has a higher level of CBD than it has THC. However, since man has been cultivating cannabis (and especially Cannabis sativa) for thousands of years, the effects of artificial selections have led to several different types of cannabis even within the same species, depending on the purpose the cannabis was cultivated for.

A recent study published in The International Journal of Neurophamacologypoints to cannabidiol (CBD) as a cause of neurogenesis in the brain; specifically in the Hippocampus, an area typically associated with conscious memory and navigation. However, the researchers believe that CBD’s anxiety relief may be due to this neurogenesis in the brain. You can read our full article on the study here.
Cutting-edge science has shown that the endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in nearly all pathological conditions. Thus, it stands to reason that “modulating endocannabinoid system activity may have therapeutic potential in almost all diseases affecting humans,” as Pal Pacher and George Kunos, scientists with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), suggested in a 2014 publication.
When taken by mouth: Cannabidiol is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth or sprayed under the tongue appropriately. Cannabidiol in doses of up to 300 mg daily have been taken by mouth safely for up to 6 months. Higher doses of 1200-1500 mg daily have been taken by mouth safely for up to 4 weeks. A prescription cannabidiol product (Epidiolex) is approved to be taken by mouth in doses of up to 10-20 mg/kg daily. Cannabidiol sprays that are applied under the tongue have been used in doses of 2.5 mg for up to 2 weeks.
CBD Isolate is the purest supplement available. It’s a 99% pure CBD supplement derived from hemp oil. Despite its concentration, CBD isolate effects are similar to other CBD concentrates, and it can be used in a variety of ways. It can be consumed itself, added to foods and beverages, or vaporized. You can also add it to other CBD products to increase their potency.
The vast majority of CBD oils come in bottles measuring either 15 milliliters (mL), or 0.5 ounces; or 30 mL, or 1 ounce. However, CBD concentration is more important than bottle size. Concentration refers to the ratio of hemp oil solution (measured in mL) compared to the amount of CBD cannabinoid (measured in milligrams, or mg). A 15-mL bottle may contain 100 mg of CBD, 300 mg, 500 mg, or more. The higher the mg amount, the stronger the CBD oil will be. For this reason, the ‘mg’ measurement is also referred to as the oil’s strength; i.e., 400-mg oil might be called 400-strength oil.

There truly is no one-size-fits-all serving size, but for those just starting out, the best rule of thumb is to start low and slow. Start with just two to three milligrams and work your way up. This may take some trial and error, but you certainly don’t want to go too hard into the deep end. Thankfully, you cannot overdose on CBD, and even the highest concentrations of pure CBD oil report no significant side effects.


"What is CBD oil" may be your first question, but the real question we have to answer is, "What does CBD oil do?" CBD interacts with the body through the endocannabinoid system (ECS). First discovered in the late 1980's, the endocannabinoid system regulates the body's homeostasis, or general state of balance. Like an acrobat on a highwire, as the environment around us impacts our normal balance, the endocannabinoid system "connects" by mediating our body's reaction to keep us level.
High-potency CBD oils are most suitable for people experiencing strong, insomnia, chronic aches and pains, anxiety/depression symptoms, and other conditions that necessitate stronger effects. Our top pick for this category is the Lab Grade CBD Oil from Spruce, which comes in a 30mL bottle with a concentration of 2,400mg. Each full dropper of oil contains roughly 80mg of CBD, which can be an effective dose for those with severe discomfort or symptoms.
Transparency: cbdMD seems to be going through a transition with their third-party testing practices. Until recently, they only released a lab report for the CBD concentrate they use for all their products, but would not show potency testing for individual products. That seems to be changing. Currently, the only lab report on the website is for their concentrate (and it’s over a year old). But if you contact customer service, they’ll send you a lab report for any product. 

In your internet travels, you may also come across products called “terpsolates.” The manufacturers of these products infuse CBD Isolate with terpenes (but not cannabinoids like THC). These terpenes may enhance the effectiveness of CBD — or maybe they just make it smell good. This may be a good place to point out that not all CBD products are created equal. The industry is still largely unregulated, and the quality and quantity of CBD in a given product will vary wildly. Third-party testing definitely helps to monitor companies’ claims, but it’s still up to you as the consumer to do your homework on the best CBD products.


The legality of CBD is probably one of the most discussed topics when it comes to reading about these products. Some publications will state that CBD is legal throughout the entire world, due to the fact that the substance does not contain any psychoactive agents, while other publications will note that CBD is considered a drug and illegal in some countries.
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