Cannabidiol has low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors,[26][27] although it can act as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists despite this low affinity.[27] Cannabidiol may be an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[28] It also may act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[29] CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist.[30] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[31] The pharmacological effects of CBD may involve PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]

In addition to all the benefits we’ve already discussed, CBD has been proven to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This means that it helps repair the damage from oxidative stress, which is believed to be a primary cause of diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS — even heart disorders and some forms of cancer. This is a hugely beneficial effect of CBD.

In 2013 a CNN program that featured Charlotte's Web cannabis brought increased attention to the use of CBD in the treatment of seizure disorders.[78][79] Since then, 16 states have passed laws to allow the use of CBD products with a doctor's recommendation (instead of a prescription) for treatment of certain medical conditions.[80] This is in addition to the 30 states that have passed comprehensive medical cannabis laws, which allow for the use of cannabis products with no restrictions on THC content.[80] Of these 30 states, eight have legalized the use and sale of cannabis products without requirement for a doctor's recommendation.[80]


Perhaps the most enjoyable way to take CBD is through CBD edibles. CBD edibles are food products that have been infused with hemp-derived CBD. Generally, CBD edibles contain a lower serving, usually 5 to 10 mg of CBD each, allowing you to easily increase or decrease your intake based on your individual wellness needs. CBD edibles come in the form of delicious CBD gummies and bite-sized CBD energy chews.
Buying online is less reliable still because there’s no regulation or standardization. What you see on the label may not be what you are getting. A 2017 study in JAMA found that of the 84 CBD products researchers bought online, 43 percent had more CBD than indicated, while 26 percent had less, and some had unexpected THC.“There’s a 75 percent chance of getting a product where the CBD is mislabeled,” says Marcu, one of the study’s coauthors.

CBD Oil Topical Solutions – For individuals who need a more targeted treatment system to assist with relieving pain, inflammation and other problems, a CBD oil topical solution may be the best option. These solutions come in different forms, including balms, creams, and lotions. They can be applied directly to an area where a relief of symptoms is desired.

CBD vaporizer oils can be used in a vaporizer of your choice. They offer a healthy way of inhaling your daily dose of the CBD supplement. Vaping is also a very direct way of ingesting CBD oil because the CBD compounds are absorbed very quickly through the lungs. CBD vape oil comes in convenient pre-filled CBD vape cartridges that connect easily with standard vaporizer batteries, as well as CBD vape liquid that can be used to fill the tanks of liquid-compatible vaporizers.

The people have spoken: this Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil from Bluebird Botanicals is our Best-Rated CBD Oil — and with good reason. Few other products combine the beneficial properties of CBD and hemp as well as this one. Potent and rich in organic, nutritional ingredients, it helps to quickly ease symptoms related to pain and anxiety. In short, there’s so much to enjoy in such a small bottle.
Statement from FDA Commissioner Scot Gottlieb, M.D., on signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act and the agency's regulation of products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/statement-fda-commissioner-scott-gottlieb-md-signing-agriculture-improvement-act-and-agencys. (Accessed May 7, 2019).
With the rapid rise in the popularity of CBD in everything from vape juice to lattes, many people are asking- “what is CBD oil?”. To answer that question, let’s first answer the question- what is CBD? CBD, short for cannabidiol, is a compound found in hemp plants. CBD’s benefits are numerous, making it a popular supplement. We’ll explore the effects of CBD oil in more depth below, but in short, it interacts with receptors that keep the body balanced and running normally.
Non-THC CBD oils can be highly effective, and are suitable for employees who face random or routine drug tests. Our top pick for this category is the Medterra CBD Oil Tincture, which contains 99.6% CBD and MCT oil (also known as coconut oil extract) without any traces of THC. The oil is derived from hemp plants that are free of GMOs and pesticides, as well. All third-party testing results for the oil are accessible through Medterra’s official product page.
CBD does not appear to have any psychotropic ("high") effects such as those caused by ∆9-THC in marijuana, but may have anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic effects.[10] As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, experts are working to distinguish "medical marijuana" (with varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) – from "medical CBD therapies” which would commonly present as having a reduced or non-psychoactive side-effect profile.[10][54]
A number of studies over the last two decades or more have reported that CBD has anti-seizure activity, reducing the severity of seizures in animal models.vi,vii In addition, there have been a number of case studies and anecdotal reports suggesting that CBD may be effective in treating children with drug-resistant epilepsy.viii,ix,x However, there have only been a few small randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of CBD as a treatment for epilepsy; the total number of subjects enrolled in these studies was 48. Three of the four studies reported positive results, including decreased frequency of seizures. However, the studies suffered from significant design flaws, including failure to fully quantify baseline seizure frequency, inadequate statistical analysis, and a lack of sufficient detail to adequately evaluate and interpret the findings.viii Therefore, the currently available information is insufficient to draw firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of CBD as a treatment for epilepsy; a recent Cochrane review concluded, there is a need for “a series of properly designed, high quality, and adequately powered trials.”xi

This tincture is processed using the brand’s signature ‘Gold Formula,’ a full spectrum blend of terpenes, phytocannabinoids, fatty acids, and vitamin E. The drops are offered in three concentrations: 250mg in a 1-oz. container, or 750mg and 1,500mg in 2-oz. containers. Plus CBD Oil recommends taking half a dropper, or 15 drops, per dose. The drops are vegetarian-friendly and free of GMOs, gluten, and glycerin.
In 2019, the European Commission announced that CBD and other cannabinoids would be classified as "novel foods",[61] meaning that CBD products would require authorization under the EU Novel Food Regulation stating: because "this product was not used as a food or food ingredient before 15 May 1997, before it may be placed on the market in the EU as a food or food ingredient, a safety assessment under the Novel Food Regulation is required."[62] The recommendation – applying to CBD extracts, synthesized CBD, and all CBD products, including CBD oil – was scheduled for a final ruling by the European Commission in March 2019.[61] If approved, manufacturers of CBD products would be required to conduct safety tests and prove safe consumption, indicating that CBD products would not be eligible for legal commerce until at least 2021.[61]
To make this more concrete, let’s use an example here. This is a high-CBD hemp oil product made from industrial hemp. It has a concentration of CBD between 18% and 24%. This means that it has 18%–24% parts CBD dissolved in the actual oil, which is composed by other substances. So 18%–24% is pure CBD, and the rest are hemp oil extracts and other fatty acid substances.
What exactly is cannabidiol (CBD) and more importantly, what does it do? Those questions and more are at the heart of this comprehensive guide to one of the most fascinating and important compounds of the cannabis plant. Cannabis plants are chemical powerhouses that produce more than 400 different compounds. Not all of those compounds are unique to marijuana, of course, and appear in many other species of plants. That’s why marijuana can smell like pine trees or taste like fresh lemons. But of those 400 compounds, more than 60 of them are totally specific to the plant genus Cannabis. Scientists call these special compounds “cannabinoids.” However, not all cannabinoids are created equal. One of them, cannabidiol, or CBD, holds the key to the wide variety of medicinal and therapeutic effects marijuana offers.
To date, 23 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws allowing marijuana to be used for a variety of medical conditions. Fifteen additional states have enacted laws intended to allow access to CBD oil and/or high-CBD strains of marijuana. Interest in the potential therapeutic effects of CBD has been growing rapidly, partially in response to media attention surrounding the use of CBD oil in young children with intractable seizure disorders including Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. While there are promising preliminary data, the scientific literature is currently insufficient to either prove or disprove the efficacy and safety of CBD in patients with epilepsy.i and further clinical evaluation is warranted. In addition to epilepsy, the therapeutic potential of CBD is currently being explored for a number of indications including anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, schizophrenia, cancer, pain, inflammatory diseases and others. My testimony will provide an overview of what the science tells us about the therapeutic potential of CBD and of the ongoing research supported by NIH in this area.
The two particular compounds that have become so popular are known as THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, and CBD, also known as cannabidiol. While both of these chemical compounds are known to interact with the endocannabinoid system in the human body, they do not interact with this system in the same way and do not produce the same effects as each other.
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