In 2013 a CNN program that featured Charlotte's Web cannabis brought increased attention to the use of CBD in the treatment of seizure disorders.[78][79] Since then, 16 states have passed laws to allow the use of CBD products with a doctor's recommendation (instead of a prescription) for treatment of certain medical conditions.[80] This is in addition to the 30 states that have passed comprehensive medical cannabis laws, which allow for the use of cannabis products with no restrictions on THC content.[80] Of these 30 states, eight have legalized the use and sale of cannabis products without requirement for a doctor's recommendation.[80]

Since industrial hemp is naturally rich in CBD and has been bred to have only trace amounts of THC, many people today are turning to industrial hemp products as an alternative to medical marijuana. Medical marijuana is not legal in all states in the US and many countries worldwide, while products made from industrial hemp can be a safe and legal alternative. You can get many of the same beneficial effects of medical marijuana from industrial hemp products without getting “high.”

CBD Oil Tinctures – This is probably the most popular type of product that provides an easy-to-use method of delivering a dose of CBD to the human body. Tinctures are extremely popular due to the fact that they are versatile – there are a large variety of tinctures to choose from on the market, with flavors and CBD concentrations to suit every user.
Several weeks after a hysterectomy last spring, Bo Roth was suffering from exhaustion and pain that kept her on the couch much of the day. The 58-year-old Seattle speech coach didn’t want to take opioid pain-killers, but Tylenol wasn’t helping enough. Roth was intrigued when women in her online chat group enthused about a cannabis-derived oil called cannabidiol (CBD) that they said relieved pain without making them high. So Roth, who hadn’t smoked weed since college but lived in a state where cannabis was legal, walked into a dispensary and bought a CBD tincture.
A colleague of Mechoulam’s, Marc Feldman at Imperial College, London, tested CBD on mice that had a version of rheumatoid arthritis. He found that CBD reduced the mice’s inflammation by 50% at the right dosage. Cardiologists working with the mice at Hebrew University have found that a dosage of CBD immediately following a heart attack can reduce infarct size by about 66%.

CBD hemp oil is the product derived from the hemp plant, which is high in CBD (cannabidiol) and low in THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). This oil has received a large amount of attention in recent years, due to the growing wave of marijuana legislation and debate in many countries, including the United States. While cannabis and smoking marijuana (which often has a high level of the psychotropic compound THC) is still illegal in many places, as more is being learned about CBD, and its potential effects on health, it is becoming more and more accepted as a legal and safe remedy for a wide variety of health conditions. Since it has a minimal amount of the psychotropic compound THC, use of this oil does not result in a traditional “high”, so its effects are generally considered therapeutic, not mind-altering.
In fact, not only will CBD not make you high, it has been proven to counteract the psychoactivity of THC. This property makes CBD highly useful as a medical treatment for a wide range of conditions. In terms of the CBD products you can buy, the amount of THC present varies from none at all in a pure CBD Isolate to a minimal amount (less than 0.3%) in a Full-Spectrum CBD product.
“Cannatonic” is one known popular CBD-rich strain which is known to contain 6.5% CBD by weight, and the same amount of THC, making for one of the most medicinal strains out there. Sour Tsunami, Ghost Rider, Harlequin, Jamaican Lion and Omrita Rx3 have been tested several times by several labs as high as 18% CBD with equal or lower percentages of THC (3:2 ratio of CBD to THC in most cases).
In nature, Cannabis ruderalis typically has the lowest levels of THC, Cannabis sativa has a higher level of THC than it has CBD, and Cannabis indica has a higher level of CBD than it has THC. However, since man has been cultivating cannabis (and especially Cannabis sativa) for thousands of years, the effects of artificial selections have led to several different types of cannabis even within the same species, depending on the purpose the cannabis was cultivated for.
We would like to provide an overview of some important terms that you need to know about, and factors that you should consider, when you have decided to buy your first CBD product. This information is vital for the correct purchase, and not knowing which particular product you need for the specific reason you wish to use a CBD solution could lead to the purchase of an item that will not work effectively for you.
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Thank you for your questions. Marijuana and hemp are two extremely different strains of the same cannabis sativa plant that have been bred over thousands of years to have entirely different purposes. (Hemp is not the male version of the marijuana plant.) They both contain CBD. Hemp only contains CBD whereas marijuana contains CBD and perhaps a hundred or so other chemicals with a variety of functions, such as THC, the molecule that makes people “high”. Any medicine can have different effects on different people. For example, Benadryl makes some people sleepy yet can make others wide-awake. So, it is not inconsistent for a particular medicine to cause a symptom in one person and to help alleviate it in another. So while many people experience relaxation with CBD, so people do experience the “paradoxical” effect of irritability.
It is important to note that NIDA’s mission is focused on drug abuse; studies related to the therapeutic effects of CBD in other areas would be funded by the Institute or Center responsible for that program area. For example, studies related to epilepsy will likely be funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, while studies related to schizophrenia will likely be funded by the National Institute on Mental Health.
Third-Party Testing: Once a CBD oil is manufactured, CBD oil companies will often submit their products for third-party tests, which are conducted by non-company personnel to ensure the product is safe for public consumption and meets quality standards.CBD oils should always be accompanied with information about third-party tests; best practice is to avoid oils that do not supply these details.

Hemp oil does have a number of uses and is often marketed as a cooking oil or a product that is good for moisturizing the skin. It is also used in the production of certain soaps, shampoos, and foods. It is also a basic ingredient for bio-fuel and even a more sustainable form of plastic. Hemp has been cultivated and used for roughly 10,000 years, and it definitely has useful purposes. However, a lack of cannabinoids, namely CBD, means that it has little therapeutic value.


Cannabis – A type of flowering plant that includes three distinct variations: Cannabis ruderalis, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis sativa. Cannabis has a wide range of industrial and medical applications. It has been used since antiquity for its sturdy fiber, for oils, and for medicinal purposes. However, it has also been used as a recreational drug, a fact that renders the cultivation of cannabis strictly regulated because of some variations including high concentrations of THC.
In September 2018, following its approval by the FDA for rare types of childhood epilepsy,[12] Epidiolex was rescheduled (by the Drug Enforcement Administration) as a Schedule V drug to allow for its prescription use.[73] This allows GW Pharmaceuticals to sell Epidiolex, but it does not apply broadly and all other CBD-containing products remain Schedule I drugs.[73] Epidiolex still requires rescheduling in some states before it can be prescribed in those states.[76][77]
Cannabidiol has low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors,[26][27] although it can act as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists despite this low affinity.[27] Cannabidiol may be an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[28] It also may act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[29] CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist.[30] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[31] The pharmacological effects of CBD may involve PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]
Mr. Chairman, Ms. Chairwoman, and Members of the Senate Drug Caucus, thank you for inviting the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to participate in this hearing to share what we know about the biology and the potential therapeutic effects of cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main active chemical compounds found in marijuana. In light of the rapidly evolving interest in the potential use of marijuana and its derivative compounds for medical purposes, it is important to take stock of what we know and do not know about the therapeutic potential of CBD.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis, a plant with a rich history as a medicine going back thousands of years. Today the therapeutic properties of CBD are being tested and confirmed by scientists and doctors around the world. A safe, non-addictive substance, CBD is one of more than a hundred “phytocannabinoids,” which are unique to cannabis and endow the plant with its robust therapeutic profile.
Preliminary research indicates that cannabidiol may reduce adverse effects of THC, particularly those causing intoxication and sedation, but only at high doses.[19] Safety studies of cannabidiol showed it is well-tolerated, but may cause tiredness, diarrhea, or changes in appetite as common adverse effects.[20] Epidiolex documentation lists sleepiness, insomnia and poor quality sleep, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and fatigue.[2]
CBD has been touted for a wide variety of health issues, but the strongest scientific evidence is for its effectiveness in treating some of the cruelest childhood epilepsy syndromes, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically don’t respond to antiseizure medications. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and in some cases it was able to stop them altogether. Videos of the effects of CBD on these children and their seizures are readily available on the Internet for viewing, and they are quite striking. Recently the FDA approved the first ever cannabis-derived medicine for these conditions, Epidiolex, which contains CBD.
Rigorous clinical studies are still needed to evaluate the clinical potential of CBD for specific conditions.i However, pre-clinical research (including both cell culture and animal models) has shown CBD to have a range of effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety properties.
There has been little high-quality research into the use of cannabidiol for epilepsy. The limited available evidence primarily focuses on refractory epilepsy in children.[15] While the results of using medical-grade cannabidiol in combination with conventional medication shows some promise, they did not lead to seizures being eliminated, and were associated with some minor adverse effects.[15]
If medical marijuana is illegal in a given state, THC levels determine whether a CBD product is illicit or not. In most places, the limit is extremely low. We’re talking under 1 percent THC, with some states opting for a cap as low as 0.3 percent. In this case, the only source that would work is hemp, and CBD products will, therefore, be hemp-derived.
The NIH recognizes the need for additional research on the therapeutic effects of CBD and other cannabinoids, and supports ongoing efforts to reduce barriers to research in this area. NIH is currently supporting a number of studies on the therapeutic effects as well as the health risks of cannabinoids. These include studies of the therapeutic value of CBD for:
Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a phyto-cannabinoid found in cannabis plants. However, it does not cause the same psychoactive effects as other naturally occurring cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC). CBD induces feelings of sleepiness and tranquility, making it suitable for insomnia and other sleep disorders; CBD can be used to alleviate symptoms of epilepsy, diabetes, and anxiety disorders, as well. Legality is an issue for some; all 50 states have laws governing the sale, possession, and use of CBD, and they vary significantly (see the table below for a full analysis).

Be mindful that there are some hemp products which do include significant quantities of THC, and which might make you high. You will not have this problem with a quality hemp oil product which has been appropriately processed to get rid of the unwanted THC. We’re not saying THC is bad in all cases, but it could be a huge issue when you are expecting something that doesn’t get you high.
People who experience psychosis may produce too much or even too little cannabinoids (from overactive dopamine receptors). CBD is milder than our internal cannabinoids and helps to re-establish a balance of cannabinoids in the brain. CBD also helps lower inflammation, which is often increased in schizophrenia. THC, on the other hand, is stronger than our internal cannabinoids (anandamide and 2-AG), this way potentially triggering psychosis [46, 48].
In addition to acting on the brain, CBD influences many body processes. That’s due to the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which was discovered in the 1990s, after scientists started investigating why pot produces a high. Although much less well-known than the cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the ECS is critical. “The ECS helps us eat, sleep, relax, forget what we don’t need to remember, and protect our bodies from harm,” Marcu says. There are more ECS receptors in the brain than there are for opioids or serotonin, plus others in the intestines, liver, pancreas, ovaries, bone cells, and elsewhere.

Preliminary research indicates that cannabidiol may reduce adverse effects of THC, particularly those causing intoxication and sedation, but only at high doses.[19] Safety studies of cannabidiol showed it is well-tolerated, but may cause tiredness, diarrhea, or changes in appetite as common adverse effects.[20] Epidiolex documentation lists sleepiness, insomnia and poor quality sleep, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and fatigue.[2]
Cannabidiol has low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors,[26][27] although it can act as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists despite this low affinity.[27] Cannabidiol may be an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[28] It also may act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[29] CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist.[30] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[31] The pharmacological effects of CBD may involve PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]

Side effects of CBD include nausea, fatigue and irritability. CBD can increase the level in your blood of the blood thinner coumadin, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in your blood by the exact same mechanism that grapefruit juice does. A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication. Currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So you cannot know for sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other (unknown) elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.
With the growth of health supplements and the push for cannabis legality, CBD oil has seen a huge rise in popularity recently. CBD is known to offer a wide range of potential health benefits. Whether you’re looking for the best CBD oil for pain to provide physical calm or if you’re looking for CBD oil to support relaxation and deeper sleep, we can help you find the best product for you.
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